- 2016 Asia and Africa today
|"Asia and Africa today" № 10 2016|
RETURN. BUT HOW? by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician. Part 1
Keywords: Russia, the Middle East, the United States, Turkey
At the beginning of the XXI century Russia, having overcome the worst consequences of socio-economic catastrophe of the 90-s of the last century, cautiously began «returning» to the Middle East. At the same time Moscow was taking into account the US dominance in the region and was doing its best to avoid any actions which could be regarded by the West as a confrontation.
Nevertheless even after September 11, 2001, the Russian-American cooperation has not developed. The Russian Federation was against the unjustified invasion of, the United States and its allies into Iraq, which plunged the country into the chaos of civil war. However Moscow was forced to recognize that the inevitable has occurred.
Unprecedented development has received the cooperation of Russia with the NATO country - Turkey in economic, social and cultural fields, as well as in some political and military issues. The crisis of 2015 in Russian-Turkish relations was yet to come.
ISLAM, ISLAMISM AND EXTREMISM
DISINTEGRATION OF LIBYA AS A FACTOR OF TENSION IN AFRICA AND IN THE MEDITERRANEAN by K.M.Truevtsev, PhD (Philosophy), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Libya, African continent, terrorist threats, political instability
Against the backdrop of the war raging today over large areas of the Middle East, events which are taking place on the African continent are in the shadow of world attention. Meanwhile, reports coming from North Africa, the Sahel countries and the countries of sub-Saharan Africa indicate that this whole region is transforming into a zone of increasing terrorist threats and political instability. There is a risk that this region will become a zone of permanent regional conflict.
The epicenter of all these threats is Libya. To prevent further spread is impossible without eliminating or at least localize Libyan storm center.
«ISLAMIC STATE» IN LIBYA: Problems and prospects of combating international terrorism by K.V.Meshcherina, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Libya, «Arab Spring», «Islamic State», terrorist organizations, Muammar Gaddafi
Five years have passed since the beginning of the «Arab Spring» in the Middle East and North Africa. Those events were results of different socio-political processes, of major transformation in the region. Today dozens or even hundreds of studies are written about it. Many authors emphasize a rise of activity of new and old terrorist organizations and an increase the number of hotbeds of instability.
The most dangerous is the phenomenon of «Islamic State» (IS), challenging the modern system of geopolitical and civilization relations, imposing itself as a «state» with its own ideology and representing a threat to the future world order.
In this article we will touch upon the IS cell in Libya where, after the overthrow of the former regime of Muammar Gaddafi, a struggle has began both between the tribes and armed groups of former revolutionary and between different islamist groups.
SLOWDOWN OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY GROWTH AND (SEMI-) PERIPHERAL COUNTRIES by V.A.Melyantsev, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: global economy, developed and developing countries, the economic slowdown, physical and human capital, information technology, debt, inequality
The article, based on a series of computations and models, shows that, despite considerable progress achieved during the last decades in the centers and (semi)periphery of the global economy in capital formation, technologies and innovations, a long-term slowdown occurred in dynamics of their GDP and productivity.
The author argues that this paradoxical phenomenon was largely caused by massive distortions in the global economy, engendered by its excessive financialization, significant and nearly general increase in indebtedness and levels of income inequalities. Although some reallocation of incomes from super-rich to less well-to-do via progressive changes in taxation systems could promote growth of human capital and effective demand, this reform in developed and developing countries is hard to enact due to resistance of the mighty oligarchic elites.
SINO-MYANMAR RELATIONS IN ENERGY SPHERE by I.S.Rymar, post-graduate, Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Keywords: China, Myanmar, energy, oil and gas, pipeline
The article gives a brief data of China-Myanmar relations energy and gas spheres as well as in hydropower spheres since 1998. Energy cooperation led China-Myanmar relations to the new height. Oil and gas pipelines have brought it to the highest level. The main topics of the paper are role of energy in China- Myanmar relations and the influence of bilateral relations on the developing of Myanmar.
The author describes the largest energy projects in Myanmar which are being built with the participation of Chinese companies, such as the construction of oil and gas pipelines, and hydroelectric dams. The reasons for such a close encounter between the two countries over the past quarter-century are analyzed; a brief forecast of the prospects is also given.
TAIWAN ECONOMIC MODEL IN CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL CONDITIONS by M.L.Gorbunova, Dr.Sc. (Economics), I.D.Komarov, Lobachevsky State University (Nizhniy Novgorod)
Keywords: Taiwanese economic model, the Asian tigers, Special administrative regions of China, Taiwan’s foreign trade, foreign investment in Taiwan, strategic triangle: United States - China - Japan
Current economic development of Taiwan is determined now by almost complete displacement of the Republic of China from the public international law as a result of the increased influence of the People’s Republic of China, representing the mainland. Return of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to the leadership in Taiwan as a result of victory of the party at the presidential election in 2016 will inevitably influence Taiwanese political and economic relations with the countries of the strategic triangle: China - US - Japan.
The authors assess the political and economic, internal and external aspects of Taiwanese development from 2000 to 2015. The study revealed the ambiguity of the influence of mainland China to Taiwan’s economy, which could generate certain problems in the Cross- Strait relations in the situation of the political transition and new leadership less oriented to strengthen cooperation with China.
POWER SECTOR OF INDIA: SECTORAL PROBLEMS AND REFORMS S.L.Rabey, post-graduate, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: India, Fuel and Energy Complex, power sector, institutional structure
The article is devoted to the research of the electricity sector of India both in its current state and in dynamics over the past two decades. The brief statistical overview is coupled with institutional analysis of the power sector liberalization. This process was initiated in the beginning of the 1990s and is still under way. The landmark of the reforms - the 2003
Electricity Act - is reviewed in detail. This evidence along with adduced comparison of similar liberalization process in neighboring countries, namely Pakistan and Bangladesh, provides an insight into the current developments of Indian electricity sector and allows to make a cautious forecast.
AFFORABLE HOUSING FOR AFRICA: NOW HOUSES CAN BE “PRINTED” by K.A.Tkachenko, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: rise of urban population, affordable housing, 3d-printing, module house, recycled raw materials, automated process
The article shows in detail one of the most perspective ways of using 3d-printing: creation of residential buildings. The key features of house- printing hardware as well as the technological process and advantages of the new technology over traditional construction methods, are described. The author stresses the leading role of China in development and wide use of house-printing, and shows the successfully accomplished projects. A prognosis is given of further spreading of the technology in Asia and the African countries.
THE FIRST MUSLIM MAIR OF LONDON by I.Yu.Kotin, Dr.Sc. (History), Peter the great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, RAS (St. Petersburg)
Keywords: Sadiq Khan, Muslims, Pakistanis
The article deals with the new event in the history of London. In May 2016 Sadiq Khan, Muslim of Pakistani origin has become the Lord Mayor of London.
In recent decades London increasingly reflects the composition of the population of former British colonies. As the capital of the former metropolis, London is a magnet for immigrants from South Asia, Africa, the West Indies, Malaysia, Hong Kong. As the commercial and financial center as well as a relatively quiet city, London has attracted the Arabs, Greeks, Turks, Russian and representatives of other nations. Probably, London is the most cosmopolitan of all the European capitals.
Sadiq Khan is a Labor Member of Parliament, and former State Minister of Transport of the Prime- Minister Gordon Brown. He is the first Mayor of Muslim and Pakistani origin in London. The article traces origins of Sadiq Khan and reasons for his election as Lord Mayor.
|Events, Facts, Comments|
RASIGAN MAHARAJH: BRICS COUNTRIES SHOULD DEVELOP PEOPLE’S DIPLOMACY by V.A.Sidorov, PhD (Economics), Yu.S.Skubko, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Rasigan Maharajh, Institute of African studies of the Russian Academy of sciences, science and innovation, cooperation of countries of BRICS
Members of the Centre for Southern African studies of the Institute for African Studies (RAS) had a “round table” meeting with Dr. Rasigan Maharajh, Chief Director: Institute for Economic Research on Innovation, Tshwane (Pretoria) University of Technology. Among subjects discussed during the meeting were cooperation between countries of BRICS and innovation and science development in South Africa.
Concerning cooperation within BRICS community Dr. Maharajh proposed to complement exchanges on an official level by people’s diplomacy from below, particularly meetings, seminars, mutual visits, exchanges by students and academics.
OF INTELLECTUAL MIGRATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN COUNTRIES by S.I.Poruchikov, post-graduate student, Tambov State University named after G.R.Derzhavin
Keywords: intellectual migration, Southern Africa, globalization, labour market
The article considers the features of intellectual migration in Southern African countries. Based on the key countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland and South Africa), together with the analysis of collective policy within regional organizations and forums, such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa (MIDSA), the author analyzed the causes and characteristics of migration processes in the region. To illustrate the problem, the statistics of quantitative and qualitative composition of local working population and its educational and occupational preferences is used. The article reveals the main difficulties that complicate the practical realization of the officially declared initiatives, together with the final evaluation of current situation and prospects for the further development of cross-border cooperation in the sphere of keeping and attracting intellectual migrants between Southern African countries.
THE MEMORY OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR IN EAST AFRICA by N.V.Gromova, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, M.R.Urb, PhD (Philology), Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: The First World War, East Africa, combatants, memorials
The article briefly observes the formation of German East Africa colony and local population resistance against colonization. We consider the military situation on the frontline during the First World War in East Africa since 1916, when the Entente demonstrated clearly its advantages in the war. German commander in East Africa Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck adopted a querilla strategy, drawing more and more areas into the war, which allowed him to resist for a long time. In this case the brunt of military trials fell on Africans. It is precisely because many Africans were involved in the military confrontations, as soldiers or bearers, and formed part of the opposing armies as a result of the forced conscription.
The longest were battles over large areas of East Africa, which recorded the biggest loss of life. The memorial complexes of personalized war graves in modern Tanzania, which made up a large part of the former colony of German East Africa, give an idea of the composition of the allied forces. This memorialization perpetuates the memory of those killed at the front in East Africa, and marks the importance of the war victims.
|Culture, Literature, Art|
HOW I HAVE FAILED TO MET WITH GREAT KUROSAWA by E.L.Katasonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Akira Kurosawa, Year of Cinema, cultural cooperation, Moscow Film Festival, Russian literature.
Akira Kurosawa, one of the most influential film director and producer of Japan, was greatly respected in Soviet Union and even now there is hardly anyone in Russia, who does not know the name of «Kurosawa». Kurosawa loved Russia, Russian people, Russian literature. He has expressed his love to our country in many of his films, such as «The Idiot», «Lower Depths», «Dersu Uzala» (Japan-Soviet co-production) etc.
CINEMA OF THE ARAB WORLD - WHAT IS IT? by N.I.Petrov
Book by A.S.Shakhov «Cinema of the Arab East: history and modern-ness» (edition of All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after Sergei Gerasimov and Research Institute of Film Arts, 2015, 472 p.) contains the list of the names of films referred to in the work. In this list - just think! - (!) 317 films. The vast majority of them are not just mentioned about. They are analyzed in detail, in considerable details their contents is retold, the indispensable evaluation of the work of directors, leading artists of all filmmakers are analyzed.