- 2016 Asia and Africa today
|"Asia and Africa today" № 12 2016|
ISLAM, ISLAMISM AND EXTREMISM
RESERVE ARMY OF THE ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAQ AND THE LEVANT (ISIL) RESOURCE AND MANEUVER by L.L.Fituni, corresponding member of the RAS; I.O.Abramova, corresponding member of the RAS, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Science (RAS)
Keywords: «Islamic state», LIH, terrorism, radical Islam, global governance, the Muslim Diaspora, migration
The fight against international terrorism in recent years has focused on one, apparently, the main front - anti-ISIL group. Despite the efforts of the military coalition, brought together more than 60 states, the so-called «Islamic State» has managed to gain control of vast territories in Asia and North Africa.
The authors consider a fundamentally important question: what reserves allow far worse armed, poorly trained professionally, financially less secured forcers continue resistance?
RETURN. BUT HOW? by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, Editor-in-Chief, “Asia and Africa Today” journal. End
Keywords: Russia, Middle East, United States, Arab states, Syria
During the first decade of the 21st century, Russia has launched a process of returning to the Middle East Not an easy task because at that time it was the United States which were holding a dominant position in the region. Nevertheless step by step Moscow succeeded in expanding cooperation with Arab states, especially with the countries of the Gulf. It should be noted that American invasion to Iraq in 2003 contributed to this success.
Very actively Russia was searching and finding mutual understanding on many international issues with Egypt. This was true of the Middle East settlement, the situation in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, of creating a security system in the region. And finally a really triumphal cards of the Russian policy in the Middle East became our actions in Syria.
It should be noted that the Arab Spring has caused a truly tectonic shifts in the whole situation in the Middle East. Therefore, each step associated with our return to the region required to overcome a lot of difficulties.
CHINA AND THE ARAB WORLD: CHINA’S FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST by N.A.Vasilieva, Dr.Sc. (Philosophy); Yu Han (China), Postgraduate student, Saint Petersburg State University
Keywords: China, foreign policy, the Middle East, Syrian issue, the Russian military operation in Syria
The political leadership of China announced its intention to significantly expand the scope of cooperation with the Middle East countries. The Programme of Action was set out in the «Basic Chinese document for the Arab countries», in which, among the priorities of a new stage of China’s relations with the countries of the region are called policy, investment, social development, co operation in the humanitarian sphere and security.
EGYPT AFTER REVOLUTIONS: TWO YEARS OF El SISI PRESIDENCY by L.M.Issaev, PhD (Political Science), A.V.Korotaev, Dr.Sc. (History), National Research University Higher School of Economics, Institute for African Studies, RAS; L.E.Grinin, Dr.Sc. (Philosophy), National Research University Higher School of Economics, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Egypt, Abdel Fattah El Sisi, Muslim Brotherhood, Army, «Evil Forces», Ismail Pasha, Megaprojects
On June 3, 2016 Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi took part in one of the most popular television programs in the country called «100 minutes», during which he answered the questions of a journalist Osama Kamal. Thus, the head of state actually summed up the results of his two-year presidency identifying the main trends of both political and economic development of Egypt. In his speech, el-Sisi focused on two fundamental problems of modern Egypt: the need for national unity in the face of «evil forces» as well as the implementation of major infrastructure projects that can boost the Egyptian economy in the future.
INDIA: SOCIAL ISSUES
VULNERABLE POPULATION AND POVERTY by F.N.Yurlov, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: India colonial exploitation, poverty, agrarian reforms, Green revolution, food security, contemporary village
This article deals with the socio-economic problems of contemporary Indian village. Many of them, including poverty, have deep roots in the colonial times. Today, in spite of many achievements in agriculture, India is still suffering from the ailments of the past. The 1950s-1970s agrarian reforms helped to solve many social problems. The Green revolution has also helped to strengthen the food security.
However, the mass poverty of the rural population, and inequality between the rich privileged minority and the majority represented by the poor and destitute remain a roadblock on the way to the development of the country.
INDIA: VULNARABLE SOCIAL GROUPS AND POVERTY by E.S.Yurlova, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: India vulnerable social groups, caste division of the society, women and children, functional poverty, food security
This article analyses various aspects of multifunctional poverty in India, a phenomenon which exists also in other countries. That is why the UN General Assembly Declaration on the immediate tasks of the world community for 2015-2030 stresses that sustainable development is not possible without eradicating poverty. This directly relates to India where vulnerable groups represent a large part of the population. There is an urgent need to eradicate absolute poverty, hunger, malnutrition, insanitation, and diseases it causes, and to address a range of social needs including education, health, and gender equality. Food security for all these vulnerable groups is a matter of deep concern in the Indian society, especially among experts. Many of them are of the opinion that economic growth alone is insufficient to attain these goals.
CHANDRIKA - “THE MOONLIGHT” OVER SRI LANKA by A.A.Suvorova, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Sri Lanka, the Bandaranaike dynasty, women of power, Sinhala-Tamil conflict, devolution
The article presents the political profile of Chandrika Kumaratunga who served as the President of Sri Lanka for two terms in 1994-2005. Though Kumaratunga’s rule was disputable in many respects, she not only boldly said that the Sinhala-Tamil ethnic problem needs a political solution but she has been also able to convince the majority of the country that the ethnic question warrants a political solution.
NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES: NATURE OF AUTHORITY, PHENOMENON OF VIOLENCE by G.V.Lukyanov, National Research University Higher School of Economics; S.A.Ragozina, Russian State University for the Humanities
Keywords: conference, Asian and African Studies, power, violence, Asia, Africa, East
In Moscow at the National Research University Higher School of Economics II-nd scientific conference «Power and violence in non-western societies» was held. It was dedicated to interdisciplinary study of a wide range of socio-political, economic and cultural-historical development of societies in Asia and Africa .
48 breakout sessions were held, more than 200 papers and two «round tables» on actual problems of power and violence research in non-Western societies were presented and discussed.
|Foreign Expert Opinion|
NIGERIA’S BOKO HARAM TERRORIST GROUP by Ilesanmi A. Bakare (Nigeria), People’s Friendship University of Russia
Keywords: Boko Haram, Terrorism, Nigeria, Insurgency, West Africa
The porous borders of Nigeria/West Africa continue to engender cross-border crime and instability in the sub-region. Owing to the lack of an appropriate mechanism for monitoring movements and illegal activities across these borders, several criminal activities across transnational borders becomes the order of the day. The spill-over effects and extension of Boko Haram activity into surrounding countries of Niger, Chad and Cameroon, and the establishment of a Multi-national Task Force to counter it has demonstrated the level of impact of trans-boundary activities of Boko Haram terrorist group beyound the Nigerian boarder.
This article examines Trans-boundary activities that stimulates the increase of Boko Haram’s insurgency in northern Nigeria.
ISIS AFRICAN NETWORK: BOKO HARAM by T.V.Kryukova, Postgraduate student, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Nigeria, Boko Haram, terrorism, Islamism, ISIS
Boko Haram is a radical Islamist group, which was operating until recently mainly in the north-east Nigeria. It is distinguished by high level of intensity of terrorist attacks, by a large number of followers and by cruelty and violence, directed also against peaceful Muslim citizens. Since the beginning of its activity in 2009 terrorists have killed more than 15 thousand people, more than half a million have become refugees.
Geography terrorist group has expanded significantly: no longer limited outside Nigeria, militants of Boko Haram are attacking now villages, cities and military bases of neighboring countries.
FRANCE POLICY IN THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA by A.R.Khalitova, Postgraduate student, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: France, Guinea, foreign policy, bilateral cooperation
October 11, 2015 in the Republic of Guinea Alpha Conde was re-elected for the second term. Adressing to his constituents the president declared that his goal - the development and consolidation of the country. France, the former colonial power, was pleased with the outcome of the election. Paris has proclaimed the policy of partnership with Guinea «on an equal footing», «equal», and announced that the priorities of its African policy are is providing of assistance to economic development and human rights protection of its former colony.
|Culture, Literature, Art|
YEAR OF CINEMA IN RUSSIA-JAPAN RELATIONS by E.L.Katasonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Japanese cinema, Russian-Japanese coproduction, Russian classics in Japanese cinema, ideological barriers, mutual understanding
Now days we forgot about this good tradition. Recollecting of the joint films made by the Russian and Japanese film makers we must think over how to use and develop this very valuable experience for the benefits of strengthening of the mutual understanding between two countries.
WORLD POLITICS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION by A.N.Chumakov, Dr.Sc. (Philosophy), First Vice-President of the Russian Philosophical Society, Chief editor of «The Age of Globalization»
A new book by Corresponding Member of the RAS An.A.Gromyko «Lessons of world politics: the order or the rule of law» (M., St. Petersburg, Nestor History, 2016, p. 240) is really interesting not only due to extremely important subject matter, but also because it is written by famous scientist, diplomat, and director of the Institute for African Studies, RAS from 1976 to 1992.
It’s written in academic style, but at the same time by bright expressive language. Due to the fact that the book contains valuable information, many interesting, often exclusive facts, generalizations and conclusions made by a person who has an experience in not only in the sphere of science alone. Mr. Gromyko is also a hereditary diplomat, able to analyze historical landmarks of world development in general and our country in particular.