- 2017 Asia and Africa today
|"Asia and Africa today" № 3 2017|
CHINA’S AID AND ‘SOFT POWER’ IN AFRICA by T.L.Deych, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); А.Е.Serikkaliyeva, PhD (Political Sciences), al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Keywords: soft power, human resources, education, people-to-people exchange, training professionals, scientific researches, healthcare cooperation
“Soft power” is traditional for China, but it is changing as a result of beginning of the “going abroad” policy. One of China’s African policy goals is forming of African elites, oriented toward South-to-South cooperation. African education and healthcare are in focus of Beijing attention. Chinese universities have offices in 22 African countries; the number of scholarships for African students is growing. Beijing created 46 Confucius Institutes in Africa. Programs of scientific exchanges and common research projects are extending. To assist the development of human resources the African Talents Program, aimed at training of professionals in various fields, is developing.
China participated actively in fight against Ebola in many African countries. The Action Plan (2016-2018) adopted in Johannesburg in December 2015 foresees cooperation between hospitals of China and Africa (20 from each side), training medicine specialists, building of African Union Disease Control Centre and regional medical centers. Active cultural exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African media are also taking place.
REVOLT IN THE ARABIAN WORLD: CROPS AND SHOOTS
THE SOCIAL-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TUNISIA AND THE STRATEGY OF “THE MOVEMENT NAHDA” by B.V.Dolgov, PhD (History), Institute for Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: social-political development, Tunisia, the Islamist “Movement Nahda”, islamisation, political terror, the universally democratic values
In this article the author examine the social-political development of Tunisia in the period between coming to power as a result of the protest movements of “The Arabic Spring” the Islamist “Movement Nahda” in 2011 until the election into authorities the secularly orientating political forces in 2014-2016.
The reasons of support of “The Movement Nahda” on the first free elections by the considerable part of the society and the attempts of “The Movement Nahda” leaders to dominate in the authorities in order to Islamize the social-political life which lead up the activity of the radical Islamist forces which applied to the political terror are analyzed. The process of the consolidation the social-political forces which stand up for the secular and democratic values, which were able to elaborate the democratic Constitution and to dismiss the islamists from the authorities are showed. The possibility of the evolution “The Movement Nahda” from the political Islam to the receiving the universally democratic values is also analyzed.
ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF IRAN WITH THE WEST - CURRENT STATE AND PROBLEMS by N.M.Mamedova, PhD (Economics), Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, MGIMO
Keywords: Iran, economic relations, oil, foreign investments
Revenues from the oil industry of made Iran a tasty morsel for foreign investments. This has turned the country into a testing ground for the introduction of advanced technologies, ensuring a high rate of GDP growth. Creating preconditions for industrialization also could not happen without the participation of foreign capital. Iranian foreign trade, especially export, which is dominated by oil, was aimed at the western market. Gradually Iran became actively use loans from both Western countries and from international financial organizations, as well as foreign direct investment.
The establishment of the Islamic system of government radically changed the attitude of Iran towards the West, to the use of foreign capital, which has become a major competitor of domestic producers before the Islamic revolution. However, the attempt to eliminate completely the West of the economy could not be realized, because main export was still oil Iran, as a major consumer of oil have always been European countries.
ELECTRONIC EDUCATION IN CHINA by M.A.Guleva, PhD (Economics), Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Keywords: China, distance learning, online education (e- learning)
In recent years distance education or, as it is called, e- learning received rapid development. This process of learning is widespread in many Western countries, and today it is gaining momentum in China. For a country with the world’s largest population of the development of electronic information-educational environment can play a huge role in teaching young people not only, but also in the adult population of advanced training.
ASIAN TRANSNATIONALS IN COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY by N.N.Tsvetkova, PhD (Economics), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS; Institute of Asian and African Countries; Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: Asian transnational (TNCs), computers and telecommunication equipment markets, contract manufacturing, robotics, foreign direct investment
The article characterizes strengthened positions of Asian countries and their TNCs in the world computer and telecommunications markets. Typical features of TNCs from Asian countries, their difference from Western TNCs, particular features of TNCs - manufacturers of electronic equipment - from China, South Korea, and Taiwan are shown. Asian TNCs participation in non-equity forms of international production - contract manufacturing, interlinking with foreign direct investment is depicted. As the author shows, Asian TNCs are actively involved in development and use of robotics and automation, they are using mechanical arms and replacing.
HYDERABAD: EVOLUTION OF URBAN AGGLO- MERATIONS IN INDIA TODAY by I.A.Petrov, Рost- graduate student, Moscow State University
Keywords: Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Cyberabad, urban agglomerations, Telangana
This article dwells upon the evolution of the South Indian city of Hyderabad, which is one of the largest urban agglomerations in India today. The paper presents the main stages of development of Hyderabad, which currently consists of three closely related parts. Firstly, it is Hyderabad itself, or the Old town. Secondly, it is Secunderabad, separated from the Old town by Hussain Sagar Lake. Third, it is Cyberabad which was established at the end of the 1990s as a technopark, and today it is one of India’s largest IT - centers. Particular attention is paid to the system of municipal government. Central focus of the article is devoted to the prospects of Hyderabad and its status change in the light of creating a new state of Telangana.
AGRICULTURE IN MOROCCO: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS by A.Yu.Noskov, Post-graduate student, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Morocco, EU, the agriculture, phosphates, fertilizers, global warming, food safety
During last years the agricultural sector of Morocco shows successful growth and achievements. From the other side, there are serious problems and challenges, which are similar for many developing countries. In order to overcome them a wide list of acts is conducted.
Moroccan government intends to create an agricultural system which will be a pattern for many African countries. Access to investments, wise politic of authorities, natural resources and industrious of citizens of country are able not only to lead Morocco to leadership in the region, but also to foster “The Green Revolution” in Black Continent. During last years the agricultural sector of Morocco shows successful growth and achievements. From the other side, there are serious problems and challenges, which are similar for developing countries. In order to overcome them a wide list of acts is conducted.
AVIATION SECTOR OF UAE AND QATAR AS AN INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DIVER- SIFICATION by A.A.Tyrtov, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: aviation sector, airlines, airport, diversification, UAE, Qatar
The Article is about development of economy of Arabian Monarchies. Upwards the second part of XX their prosperity is obviously associated with oil revenue. Recognizing oil dependence imminence, they are looking for ways of national economy diversification. Through an example of UAE and Qatar the article examines aviation sector as one of diversification instruments. In the frame of this aviation sector the big airlines were established, the modern infrastructure was built; high-qualified specialists were educated.
AFRICA: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AFRICA. RESERVES AND KLIMATE by I.G.Rybalkina, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: African biodiversity, biosphere reserves, protected areas, climate change, flora and fauna
Africa is a continent of exceptional biodiversity, where one-fifth of all known naturally occurring plants, mammals, birds, and one-sixth of all amphibians and reptiles are concentrated. The governments and biologists are trying to save the uniqueness of African flora and fauna, creating biosphere reserves and other protected areas.
Experts are faced with many challenges and obstacles in the environmental policy, one of them - the impact of climate change on the environment and protected areas. Increasing average temperatures and the sea level due to the «greenhouse effect» and the melting glaciers have a devastating effect on the nature of the continent, accelerating the process of deforestation and desertification. The international community provides a theoretical, scientific, practical, and financial assistance to African nations to preserve unique natural biodiversity.
LAKE CHAD: ECOLOGY AND HYDRO POLITICY by E.A.Elkina, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: LCBC, Lake Chad, UN, poverty
Lake Chad, one of the largest in Africa, is drying up and is on verge of disappearance. This is due to General climate warming, reduced rainfall and human activities: irrigation, construction of dams on flowing into the Lake Rivers. These reasons produce degradation of agriculture and fishing and fall of the level of life - already extremely low of some 30 millions people living in the Chad basin in 4 countries.
The Lake Chad Basin Commission is trying to contribute to the peaceful settlement of the conflicts, despite the absence of funding.
|Foreign Expert Opinion|
KURDISH QUESTION IN THE POLICY OF THE RULING JUSTICE AND DEVELOPMENT PARTY 2005-2015 by T.Abak (Turkey), Institute of Oriental Studies (RAS)
Keywords: Kurdish Question, JDP, PKK, Neo- Ottomanism, moderate Islam, peace process
This article analyzes Kurdish policy of the JDP (the Justice and Development Party), led by R.T.Erdogan. In the early years of governing, the Ruling Party of Turkey has made major steps for democratization of the country; among them the abolition of all restrictions on the using of Kurdish language and representation of Kurdish culture and identity was main achievement that supported and welcomed by the liberals and commissioners of EU. However, after gradually transforming the liberal policies toward aggressive and imperial dreams of Neo-Ottomanism, from 2007, the JDP has revised his goals regarding the Kurdish Question as well. Henceforth, the Kurdish population of Turkey has been meant, for the Government, first of all, the “religious brothers”. In this context, the Government has found the solution of Kurdish Question in the strengthening of Muslim identity in the Eastern Provinces.
|A LETTER TO THE EDITOR|
THE THIRD INTIFADA? PONDERING ON THE SITUATION WITH AN EYE TO THE PAST by V.A.Korochkina, PhD (Political Sciences), St. Petersburg State University, Israel
Keywords: Intifada, Palestine-Israeli conflict, terror attacks, «Intifada of knives», Israel, Palestine, B.Netanjahu, M.Abbas, Jerusalem
The article contains author’s reflections on publication of the article “Intifada Al-Kuds and its role in Palestine-Israeli confrontation” by A.A. Ermakov, I.V. Rijov in magazine “Asia and Africa Today”, February edition, 2016. The author analyses the new wave of terror following the series of Arab’s individual mortal raids on Israeli citizens. The events which started in autumn 2016 and are going on until the present time are now known as “Intifada of knives” or “The Third Intifada”. The article also reflects author’s arguments pro and contra regarding magnifying these individual acts of violence up to the scale of armed insurrection, especially looking back to the Israel’s experience of the previous two Intifadas. The author decomposes reasons for this last spike in violence on the Land of the Covenant as well as prospects for peaceful coexistence of the Palestinians and Israelis.
RELATIONS BETWEEN SOUTH AFRICA AND GREAT BRITAIN: PAST AND PRESENT by I.R.Yutyaeva, Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Keywords: South African Republic, Great Britain, bilateral relations
The article analyses the whole spectrum of the relations between South Africa and Great Britain since 1961. It considers in detail the interests that each party has been pursuing during the whole period of cooperation. The author identifies specific features of the relations between the countries during the years of apartheid, special attention being paid to the British position on the issue of the imposition of sanctions against the South African regime.
The attitude of the British government towards the democratic transformation of 1994 is also mentioned. The article evaluates current political, trade and investment cooperation between South Africa and Great Britain, noting also key problems in the bilateral relations. In conclusion, the author defines the importance of the cooperation for each party.
|Events, Facts, Comments|
TRANSPARENT ELECTIONS IN INDONESIA by N.A.Tolmachev, PhD (History), Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Keywords: Indonesia, the presidential elections of 2009, the transparency of elections, election observers
The article deals with the conduct of the 2009 presidential election in Indonesia. It describes the situation at a polling station in Jakarta, the course of the elections and the counting of votes, which system provides complete transparency of the process, when the observer can be any voter, not only officially registered representatives of the parties. The article provided with illustrations.
|Culture, Literature, Art|
AMRENDRA MISHRA - PHILOSOPHER, DIPLO- MAT, LITTERATEUR by Ye.I.Rudenko, PhD (History), R.B.Suleimenov Institute of Oriental Studies, Kazakhstan
Keywords: Hindi-language literature, short story and poem, «genre of little nothings»
The paper contains quite a brief description of professional and more detailed presentment of literary activities of Amrendra Mishra - Indian Hindi-speaking writer and poet. Practical characteristics, main directions, different aspects of his literary work are discussed. An analysis of styles, genres, themes, speech figures, features of presentation of his writings are performed.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. 50 YEARS AFTER INDEPENDENCE by N.A.Zherlitsyna, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Book by Dr. Sc. (History), Head of the Centre for History and Cultural Anthropology of the Institute for African Studies, RAS, G.M. Sidorova «Africa. The war and the war of ideas in the mirror of the people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo» (M., 2015) is dedicated to the armed conflict in the DRC.
A new monograph is a continuation of another author’s book «Armed conflicts in Africa. The case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo» (2013) and is based on the massive documentary material and personal experience obtained during the work in the DRC.